|Reference||Author Title Publisher||Summary|
Sami A. Aldeeb
A revised English translation of the book in two volumes published in Arabic by Riad El-Rayyes in Beirut and prefaced by Dr. Nawal Al-Saadawi. It is also available in French, published by L'Harmattan.
Orders are accepted from the publisher,
You can see an English translation of the foreword by Dr. Nawal El-Saadawi.
Un livre par
A loosely organised compendium of history, first person accounts and photographs, of both the foreskin and circumcision, more suited to the person with a sexual interest in one or the other.
Out of print in April 2000
Jim Bigelow & James L. Snyder,
This book goes far beyond its short title; it is a comprehensive review of circumcision and the case against it.
"The Joy of Uncircumcising", amended in the light of recent developments, is now available on paper, on CD, or as an eBook from the NORM website.
One woman's investigation of the effect of circumcision on sexuality.
Billy Ray Boyd,
An excellent short summary, with a sensitive treatment of Brit Milah and appropriate first-person involvement.
Read reviews and order
It is hard to say anything about "Uncut" that it has not already said about itself. From the dustjacket:
$25 ppd. Send check payable to Sherwin Carlquist to Pinecone Press, 4539 Via Huerto, Santa Barbara, CA 93110.
The same author has published a series of albums of "Natural Men" - not only intact but without piercings, tattoos, tanlines or shaved bodies.
Shaye J. D. Cohen,
Cohen is a Jewish Studies professor at Harvard, a specialist in rabbinic studies. He has a beginner's knowledge of the arguments against circumcision. but gives them only guarded recognition. He concludes with a vaguely worded defense that slides past the central issue of whether anyone has the right to do this to an infant.
His essential answer to the question in the title comes on p. 111, beginning of Part 2, where he discusses four "responses," the first being most important:
"Why do Jewish men bear a covenantal mark on their bodies but not Jewish women? The fundamental answer . . . is that the Jewishness of women is different from the Jewishness of men, or, to be more blunt, the Jewishness of women is of a lesser kind than the Jewishness of men. The absence of circumcision bespeaks their second-tier status. This is the answer that I have been calling the implicit answer of rabbinic Judaism . . . What was implicit for [the earlier rabbis] became explicit in the thirteenth century."
Jewish women especially may wish to consider the implications of that.
In the eighteenth century, the Western world viewed circumcision as an embarrassing disfigurement peculiar to Jews. A century later, British doctors urged parents to circumcise their sons as a routine precaution against every imaginable sexual dysfunction, from syphilis and phimosis to masturbation and bed-wetting. Thirty years later the procedure again came under hostile scrutiny, culminating in its disappearance during the 1960s.
Why Britain adopted a practice it had traditionally abhorred and then abandoned it after only two generations is the subject of A Surgical Temptation. Robert Darby reveals that circumcision has always been related to the question of how to control male sexuality. This study explores the process by which the male genitals, and the foreskin especially, were pathologized, while offering glimpses into the lives of such figures as James Boswell, John Maynard Keynes, and W. H. Auden. Examining the development of knowledge about genital anatomy, concepts of health, sexual morality, the rise of the medical profession, and the nature of disease, Darby shows how these factors transformed attitudes toward the male body and its management and played a vital role in the emergence of modern medicine.
(No reading hardware required using a free Kindle app on your PC, Mac, iPad etc.)
Includes a critique of the latest AAP policy statement
"The Sorcerer's Apprentice: Why can't the United States Stop Circumcising Boys?" is a book every expectant parent should read.
Dr. Robert Darby's guiding metaphor, that of the Sorcerer's Apprentice, who, having cast a spell was not able to undo it, is a near-perfect explanation for the puzzling persistence of circumcision in the United States. Doctors invented the `medicalized' version in the 19th century, because they believed that touching the genitalia caused all manner of disease, ...
Unfortunately, when germ theory arrived in 1879, the spell had already been cast, and could not be undone. ...
As an attorney I have taken depositions of physicians, under oath, who, when pressed, always testify that, "I discourage parents from circumcision, but they insist" ...
It helps, of course, that there is money involved --two-billion dollars' worth each year in the U.S. ...
Dr. Darby has the spell aspect right on the money. Readers will find his analysis a fascinating tale of medical superstition, intransigence, and a singular failure to consider that every little boy will some day be a man - one who might want all the erogenous tissue he was born with, especially as he ages.
John V. Geisheker, J.D., LL.M.
Geoffrey Bennington and Jacques Derrida,
Bennington attempts to explain the French post-modernist philospher's thought on the top half of each page (his explanation quite as obscure as the thought itself), and Derrida himself comments on the bottom half in a "Circumfession" of chapter-long sentences. Derrida makes many references to his own Jewish circumcision, with a strong implication that it was painful and traumatic, but in such obscure terms that it is beyond this reader to make any sense of it. For example:
2 ... what can be got around or not which comes back to me without ever having taken place, I call it circumcision, see the blood but also what comes, cauterization, coagulation or not, strictly contain the outpouring of circumcision, one circumcision, mine, the only one, rather than circumnavigation or circumference, although the unforgettable circumcision has carried me to the place I had to go to, and circumfession if I want to say and do something of an avowal without truth turning around itself, an avowal without "hymn" (hymnology) and without "virtue" (aretalogy), without managing to close itself on its possibility, unsealing abandoning the circle open, wandering on the periphery, taking the pulse of an encircling phrase, the pulsion of the paragraph which never circumpletes itself, as long as the blood, what I call thus and thus call, continues its venue in its vein.
11 ... treatises that I'll never do anything with, about circumcisions in the world, the Jewish and the Arab and the others, and excision, with a view to my circumcision alone, the circumcision of me, the unique one, that I know perfectly well took place, one time, they told me and I see it but I always suspect myself of having cultivated, because I am circumcised, ergo cultivated, a fantastical affabulation.
13 ... "When a song expresses, for example, a sadness caused by a loss, we can
rightfully ask immediately: what has been lost?", sucking up the blood through a lightweight cloth, the tight filter of a white dressing round the penis, on the seventh day, when they would put on orange-flower water in Algeria, with the theory, among so many others, that by mingling with the blood right on that wound that I have never seen, seen with my own eyes, this perfumed water attenuates the pain which I suppose to be nil and infinite, and I can still feel it, the phantom burning, in my belly, irradiating a diffuse zone around the sex, a threat which returns every time the other is in pain, if I identify with him, with her even, with my mother especially, and when they claimed that orange-flower water had an anesthetic virtue, they were believed, anesthetic they said for the wounded baby, of course, not for the mother kept at bay, sometimes in tears, so that she could
14 ... "Circumcision, that's all I've ever talked about, consider the discourse on the limit, margins, marks, marches, etc., the closure, the ring (alliance and gift), the sacrifice, the writing of the body, the pharmakos excluded or cut off, the cutting/sewing of Glas, the blow and the sewing back up, whence the hypothesis according to which it's that, circumcision, that, without knowing it, never talking about it or talking about it in passing, as though it were an example, that I was always speaking or having spoken, unless, another hypothesis, circumcision itself were merely an example of the thing I was talking about, yes but I have been, I am and always will be, me and not another, circumcised, and there's a region that is no longer that of an example, that's the one that interests me and tells me not how I am a case but where I am no longer a case, when the word first of all, at least, CIRCUMCISED, across so many relays, multiplied by my 'culture,' Latin, philosophy, etc., as it imprinted itself on my language circumcised in its turn, could not have not worked on me, pulling me backward, in all directions, to love, yes, a word, milah, loves another, the whole lexicon that obsesses my writings, CIR-CON-SI, ... in my family and among the Algerian Jews, one scarcely ever said 'circumcision' but 'baptism,' not Bar Mitzvah but 'communion,' with the consequences of softening, dulling, through fearful acculturation, that I've always suffered from more or less consciously, of unavowable events, felt as such, not 'Catholic,' violent, barbarous, hard, 'Arab,' circumcised circumcision, interiorized, secretly assumed accusation (of ritual murder" ... the presently present survival or life by provision of Georgette Sultana Esther, or Mummy if you prefer, which cuts across everything, a synchrony running the risk of hiding what's essential, that is that the restrained confession will not have been my fault but hers, as though the daughter of Zipporah had not only committed the crime of my circumcision but one more still, later, the first playing the kickoff, the original sin against me, but to reproduce itself and hound me, call me into question, me, a whole life long, to make her avow, her, in me.
15 ... the text read does not suffice, has to be eaten, sucked, like the foreskin ...
18 ... I was both excluded and infinitely, secretly preferred by my family... whence a sequence of ruptures ... insured ...finally, ... the noncircumcision of my sons. The prophet Elijah is nonetheless the guardian of circumcision...
19 "So I have borne, without bearing, without its ever being written" (12-23-76) the name of the prophet Elie, Elijah in English, who carries the newborn on his knees, before the still unnamable sacrifice, ... the same name as that of the paternal uncle Eugene Eliahou Derrida who must have carried me in his arms at the moment of the event without memory of me for they are the memories of an amnesia about which you wonder why "I'm getting ready to write them, in this book of'circumcision' dreamed of after the death of my father (1970) and certain events that followed, deliberately projected after Glas but never undertaken, no doubt carried since ever in this netherworld of scars, escarres, scarifications and cannibalism, of alliance through the blood that flows and that the mohel, sometimes charged with sacrificial slaughter, sometimes sucks, like the mother here or there eats the foreskin and elsewhere the boy that of excision" ...
46 A circumcision is my size, it takes my body, it turns round me to envelop me in in its blade stokes, they pull upward, a spiral raises and hardens me, I erect in my circumcision for centuries like the petrified memory and an ammonite...
[Could it be that the trauma of Derrida's circumcision, coupled with the remembered trauma of being expelled from his Algerian primary school in 1942 for being Jewish, made it impossible for him to think straight thereafter?]
This important book traces the history of circumcision from the ancient Middle East to the modern US and its transformation, from a blood ritual to a surgical procedure with extraordinary cultural power, weaving history and analysis together in a very readable way.
You can hear an interview with Dr. Glick from Station WFCR by clicking the MP3 button here.
This book is the first intensive exploration of the unrecognized psychological and social aspects of this increasingly controversial American cultural practice. It has been endorsed by dozens of professionals in psychology, psychiatry, child development, pediatrics, obstetrics, childbirth education, sociology, and anthropology.
Without much knowledge, the American public generally assumes that our cultural practice of circumcision is a trivial and benign procedure. As discussed in Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma, plain facts and recent research results conflict with these beliefs and raise questions. Dr. Goldman's application of psychological and social research coherently explains both the tenacity of the practice and the contradictory information and beliefs about it.
After a review of the surprising abilities of infants and their responses to circumcision pain, the long-term psychological effects of circumcision are examined from the perspectives of both traditional and more recent, innovative psychological theories. We learn that circumcision has potential effects not only on men and sexuality, but also on mother-child relationships, male-female relationships, and societal traits and problems. The text is supported with clinical reports, interviews, surveys, and thorough documentation.
This book is the first critical examination of the growing controversy of male infant circumcision with special attention to contemporary concerns of the Jewish community. Endorsed by five rabbis, this extraordinary book examines the origins, assumed benefits, risks, and unrecognized consequences of the Jewish practice with thorough documentation and moving personal experiences.
Consider these facts:
David L. Gollaher,
This ground-breaking book attempts to explain the worldwide obsession with circumcising, and puts the current US medical preoccupation into that context.
Gary M. Griffin
This pioneering work is out of print.
For better understanding of the obstacles of opposing FGM & MGM,
and for implicit suggestions on how to use careful strategy rather than
head-on confrontation. Gruenbaum worked in
Sudan, now teaches at California State University, Fresno.
Frederick M. Hodges and Paul M. Fleiss M.D.
"Packed with sensible information, practical solutions that work, and landmark information on male health and child care...an indispensible guide for parents"
- Dr Dean Edell
Lawrence A. Hoffman,
This book traces Jewish doubts about circumcision over the last 150 years, and the progressive separation of women from the rite over centuries. The writer himself does not take a stand, at least in part because he is part of the system he is trying to analyse.
"This book is an educational resource intended to help parents who wish to discuss the sensitive topic of circumcision with their children. As the US circumcision rates continue to plummet (now at 33%), many boys may find the anatomy differences quite confusing. "What happened?" is written to help all boys, both intact and circumcised, understand why their bodies are different. It is beautifully illustrated and easy to understand.
Perhaps the first book ever to challenge routine infant circumcision. Long out of print and hard to get hold of, it is highly regarded by some of those who have read it, criticised as anti-Semitic by others.
Primarily about FGM, but has a chapter on male circumcision.
Author's description: The object of this book is to give voice to the multitudes of human beings who exist behind the statistics on genital surgery performed on them when they were non-consenting children, and who have long endured their suffering in silence, for reasons of suppression, desperation, or shame. I have endeavored to create an understanding of the connection between genital surgery perpetrated on infants and children too young to be capable of meaningful consent or effective protest, and of the frequently cataclysmic diminution in quality of life that they have suffered as a consequence. To anyone not totally steeped in denial, or tyrannized by social custom, as most people in genitally mutilating societies certainly tend to be, whether we are talking about female genital cutting, inter-sex surgery or male foreskin ablation, it should be perfectly obvious that genital cutting of any sort is the kind of nightmarish event that makes the most cruel reality of a child's ultimate fears. -->
First-person novel about a survivor of a botched Xhosa circumcision.
"With frankness and courage, new author Thando Mgqolozana details the pain and life-long shame that is experienced as a result of not just the physical trauma, but the social ostracism of being labelled ‘a failed man’. He decodes the values and mysteries of this deep-seated cultural tradition and calls to account the elders for the disintegrating support systems that allow such tragic outcomes to happen. But it is also through this life-changing experience that his protagonist is forced to find his strength and humanity, and reassess what it really means to be a man."
This excerpt tells of his abuse by a nurse.
Kristen O'Hara with Jeffrey O'Hara
Largely based on the O'Haras' survey of women who have had sex with both intact and circumcised men, it argues in favour of the intact penis as enhancing women's sexual pleasure (as well as the man's). The book's webpage offers extensive summaries.
Thomas J. Ritter
Updated and revised by George C. Denniston, MD and reissued as Doctors Re-examine Circumcision. Now includes the most recent research, data, terminology, and medical-association position-statements available about infant circumcision.
Case of 66 books ($4 per book) = $289
All prices include shipping to a single address in the US. Orders to outside the US will have different shipping charges. All the proceeds from the sale of this book will be used for circumcision education and outreach
Order via email to MusiciansUnited@aol.com or send a cheque or money order, made payable to NOCIRC-PA, to
story of how one woman discovered
she had been the victim of female
genital mutilation as a child in Kansas. Deals with both the female and male operations.
An excellent overview of most aspects of circumcision. The author had her three sons circumcised before beginning to doubt the procedure. Extremely moderate, and more convincing for that reason.
A quirky work: a poem for expectant parents presented in images worked in paper-sculpture.
The author sings it on VideoGoogle.
Available from http://www.iwantmyforeskinforgiftmas.com/mainsiteflash.html
From the publisher: "...a comprehensive overview of Jewish circumcision throughout history. Beginning with Genesis, the author traces paradoxes and tensions in biblical-Jewish circumcision as seen both within Judaism and from the dominant, non-Jewish culture, and ends with the current debate over Jewish and routine medical circumcision in America."
From the author: "... while I did, in the spirit of intellectual honestly, critique many anti-circumcision arguments, especially the rather disturbing images of Jews, I also critique the pro-circumcision arguments. I endorse no position."
This classic condemnation of circumcision covers all the bases known in 1980 (not HIV/AIDS). Its final chapter is reproduced here.
|Reference||Author Title Publisher||Summary|
"Thousands of years ago, a terrified, half-mad old man genitally mutilated his son, hoping it would buy him some points with the Being he hoped was running the show. Over the years, equally terrified men wrote blessings and composed prayers and devised rituals and ordained that an empty seat be left for Elijah. Six thousand years later, a father will not look his grandson in the face, and a mother and sister will defend such behavior, because the child wasn't mutilitated in precisely the right fashion."
Memoir of (partially) escaping from a highly Orthodox Jewish family and community.
From a review:"His father was belligerent and volatile and given to threats involving amputation."
From an interview: "[Deciding whether to circumcise my son] was incredibly difficult and it was at that point, or afterwards that I realised that's really what the book was about. ... I was enraged that when a nurse turned to me, and said "This is- it's a boy" it turned my life upside down. ... what my mind became increadibly occupied with was, "Do I mutilate this kid or don't I?" ... Ah, I think it's very funny (laughs) that talking about my son's willy ruins the book. (Laughs) So, his name is Pax and if you're listening to this in 20 years, apologies ahead of time, but um, ... our son had a very difficult time getting into this world, and without going into too many details I was afraid that God might make it very easy for him to leave, and it was right after that, ... that a doctor came in and asked us if we were going to circumcise and, and we looked at each other and my wife shrugged and I shrugged and then I thought, "I'm not messing around with this guy right now." There's this tiny little boy hooked up to a bunch of tubes, and I said "Yeah. We will." And I mention in the book that next day, a few hours after that, I think it was the next day, they came and they took his little sealed cart that he was in and rolled him down the hall, and did it, and I couldn't watch. I walked out, and heard him screaming and, I say in the book that the moment my son became a Jew was the moment I felt least like one." [Surgical circumcision in a hospital on an unspecified day by an unknown doctor without ritual has nothing to do with being a Jew, let alone becoming one.]
Foreskin's Lament is also the title of a 1981 New Zealand play.
Clifford Bishop and Xenia Osthelder,
A coffee table book on sexuality
There is a two-page chapter headed “Genital Mutilation” in the Division headed “Mind and Body”. It is about 65% about male genital cutting and 35% about female.
A thin, jokey book of penis-lore (such as Penis Day). One page of the two-page "Great Circumcision Debate" is a picture of a butcher with a chopper and a string of sausages. Both sides get exactly equal space, fewer than 100 words each. (No room to rebut circumcisionist claims or mention human rights.) Though there are good photos of intact penises, some key diagrams are not.
The text mentions common and medical terms from 'bladder' to 'corpus spongiosum' - but neither 'foreskin' nor 'prepuce'. It attributes sensitivity to the frenulum (a common displacement when that is all that is left of the ridged band) and says the most dense concentration of nerves is in the testicles! (Possibly assumed from the acute pain caused by a kick to them, but there is more to nerves than pain.)
Don't confuse it with The Penis Book: an owner's manual by Margaret Gore or The Book of the Penis by Maggie Paley.
AGM Campbell and N McIntosh (eds)
"Routine circumcision of the newborn as commonly practiced in the USA is to be condemned, the incidence of complications, including death, far outweighing the supposed advantage of avoiding such problems as carcinoma of the penis. ... The fact that it is 'more hygienic' is often used as an excuse for circumcision but one does not chop off the ears to save washing them, or the feet because they may smell!... The only valid [reason] is a fibrous phimosis. This may be due to inappropriate attempts at retraction at an early age, causing splitting and scarring of the preputial meatus ... Circumcision is thus performed either for religious or tribal reasons, for fibrous phimosis or, perhaps most frequently, for remuneration!"
A critique of approaches to the AIDS epidemic to date, focusing on erroneous beliefs about transmission, especially the discounting of blood-borne transmission and overcounting of sexual transmission. (NB: it does not deny HIV as the agent of AIDS.)
An Invitation to Health
|An overpriced college text, with a few stock paragraphs about circumcision making no reference to the controversy or human rights, almost cut and pasted from the 1999 AAP policy:
AAP: "Until the last half century, there has been limited scientific evidence to support or repudiate the routine practice of male circumcision."
Hales: "Until the last half century, scientific evidence to support or repudiate routine circumcision was limited."
A first-person account of childbirth and rearing includes a chapter divided three ways between the son's intactness, the daughter's (born with a third thumb) and the decision whether to declaw the cat.
"Not afraid to tackle touchy issues, she not only deals with female circumcision but also the more controversial problem of whether circumcision of boys is abuse. She criticizes the practice." - Catholic News Service, November 7, 2011
"In more recent times, some pseudosecular arguments have been adduced for
male circumcision. ... Full excision, originally ordered by god as
the blood price for the promised future massacre of the Canaanites, is now
exposed for what it is - a mutilation of a powerless infant with the aim
of ruining its future sex life. The connection between religious barbarism
and sexual repression could not be plainer than when it is ˜marked in
your flesh." Who can count the number of lives that have been made
miserable in this way, especially since Christian doctors began to adopt
ancient Jewish folklore in their hospitals? ... If religion
and its arrogance were not involved, no healthy society would permit this
primitive amputation, nor allow any surgery to be practiced on the
genitalia without the full and informed consent of the person concerned."
Dr. Terri Hamilton
Emphasises the important structure and role of the foreskin. Has a chapter on circumcision. Does not mention the ridged band, however.
In a sometimes irritating journalistic style, eleven pages of a chapter, "Man Mutilated" unequivocally condemn circumcision. Coverage is wide-ranging but sketchy, and some information is out of date or inaccurate,
Russ Kick (ed.),
In it there is a chapter by Diane Petryk-Bloom on "Circumcision and Sex" which is the most devastating critique of circumcision, about how it damages sexual pleasure The price is $24.95 and it is a paperbound large type.
At least the UK edition, published by Dorling Kindersley, does.
It is not confirmed that the two editions have the same content. They have the same number of pages, 448.
This book, aimed at 9-12 year olds, is particularly suited to intact boys.
The Munchausen Syndrome is the tendency to make up stories, especially about one's health to justify unnecessary treatment. More contentious is "Munchausen by proxy" the fabrication of symptoms in someone else, such as a child. Richard Matteoli explores issues around Munchausens, including those used to justify unnecessary circumcision.
A study of the roots of male violence. Several passages touch on circumcision, but she seems unaware of the frequency of Routine Infant Circumcision in the US.
A chapter "Why are babies circumcised?" is a 2½ page attack on the practice. Has a light touch: "[Circumcision] has been said to be valuable because ...The Devil hides beneath the foreskin, ... The truth ...is... Those who believe in the Devil know perfectly well that he can enter the body through any unprotected orifice, which makes the circumcised individual more vulnerable than the uncircumcised." Considers the foreskin only as protective of the glans, however, not as erogenous in its own right, saying that circumcision "has no effect, one way or the other, on the sexual performance of the adult male" - presumably following Masters and Johnson.
Has a chapter on the penis, including "the Greek obsession with the foreskin", Australian subincision, circumcision, which he calls "this unusual form of child abuse" and "the most common, and most profitable, form of surgey known to man" and foreskin restoration:
"If men are prepared to subject themselves to such extraordinary measures, it is clear that, for some at least, circumcision is a continuing nightmare that should, in future, be stamped out completely.
"The pro-circumcision lobby counter-claims that there are important medical benefits from circumcision and denies that there is any evidence of later psychological harm or loss of sexual pleasure.
"Clearly these two schools of thought contradict one another on three key issues: psychological, sexual and medical. Their conclusions, based in both cases on extensive medical research, are flatly opposed to one another. Obviously, emotional factors are playing too big a part here and it will no doubt be some time before a final, unbiased, objective statement can be achieved."
Catherine Price and Sandra Robinson
Weighs pros and cons of circumcising, but makes the con case more strongly; mentions the role of the forekin in sex (but not its direct role or the ridged band), and includes a section on care of the foreskin.
Unlike most anatomy books, includes a section on the genitals, with four photographs of different lengths of foreskin and one of a circumcised penis. [at least the British edition does....]
Margaret Somerville is the first academic ethicist to question the ethics of neonatal circumcision. Her book has a chapter on circumcision called "Altering Baby Boys' Bodies: The Ethics of Infant Male Circumcision" (pp. 202-219).
Photographs of natural (intact, untattooed, undepilated, without tanlines) male nudes in natural surroundings
Natural Man (1991)
Man Naturally (1996)
Go to Sherwin Carlquist's website as above.
The Natural Male (1999)
Go to Sherwin Carlquist's website. as above.
Forthcoming: The Nature/Man Panels - mid-2002 or earlier.
See also "Uncut: the natural history of the foreskin"
|Reference||Author Title Publisher||Summary|
Lori B. Andrews and Dorothy Nelkin
Although it conspicuously fails to mention the trade in foreskins, it has a wealth of information about the ethics and legality of the trade in body parts.
Castration of boys to keep their high singing voices throughout manhood (and for familiar "medical reasons") was as acceptable in 18th and 19th Century Italy as circumcision is in the US today.
From a review by Georganne Chapin:
... Dreger concludes that children who are born attached are generally not just accepting of, but happy with their lives. ... Rather, it is the medical establishment that rushes to intervene, capitalizing on the drama of the event and parents' understandable confusion and lack of a roadmap for navigating the unexpected.
... Dreger shows that with the exception of emergencies, separation surgeries are often not medically necessary procedures, and often do nothing to improve the physical health or function of either child. “In fact, they often leave the children's bodies - at least temporarily and often permanently - much more ill and impaired than before ….”
Related to this is “anxiety about conjoined children's future sexuality.” ...Dreger notes that, as is true generally of pediatric surgeries performed in the United States, virtually no information is available as to the actual results of separation surgeries...
...one cannot miss the point that the bioethical issues are the same, whether dealing with extremely rare phenomena such as conjoined twins or a condition that afflicts just about half of all people on earth - possession of a penile prepuce at birth."
Includes a valuable warning about the misuse of statistics, as commonly done in studies claiming to prove links between intactness and various diseases.
Jacobson's organ, like the foreskin, has been commonly removed in the false belief that it has no function.
To scientific papers.
Circumcision in fiction.
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